Fatemeh Momeni, Amir B. Ghaemmaghami, Majid Nejati, Mohammad Hossein Pourhanifeh, Laleh Shiri Sichani, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Mohammad Momeni, Alireza Khosravi*, Masoud Etemadifar* and Hamed Mirzaei* Pages 6703 - 6726 ( 24 )
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disorder associated with spinal cord and brain, chiefly affects the white matter. Regarding the complexity as well as heterogenic etiology of this disease, the treatment of MS has been a challenging issue up to now. Researchers are working to develop new therapeutic strategies and drugs as complementary therapies. MS diagnosis significantly depends on the findings of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examination. In this imaging technique, gadolinium is used as a contrast agent to reveal active plaques intending to destroy the bloodbrain barrier. It also detects plaques that are not correlated with the neurological symptoms. It has been attempted to determine biomarkers related to different dimensions of MS in various organizational hierarchy levels of the human anatomy (i.e., cells, proteins, RNA, and DNA). These biomarkers are appropriate diagnostic tools for MS diagnosis. In this review, we summarized the application of MRI and biochemical biomarkers to monitor MS patients. Moreover, we highlighted the joint application of MRI and biomarkers for the diagnosis of MS subjects.
Multiple sclerosis, magnetic resonance imaging, biomarker, autoimmune disorder, RNA, DNA.
Isfahan Research Committee of Multiple Sclerosis, Alzahra Research Institute, Alzahra hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Department of Psychology; Behaviour, Genetics, and Neurobiology Program, University of Toronto, Toronto, Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Halal Research Center of IRI, FDA, Tehran, Department of Genetic, Faculty of Basic Science, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Clinical Immunology Research Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Science, Zahedan, Department of Neurology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Isfahan Research Committee of Multiple Sclerosis, Alzahra Research Institute, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan