Iswary Letchumanan, M.K. Md Arshad and Subash C.B. Gopinath* Pages 986 - 1002 ( 17 )
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both men and women. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), ischemic heart disease is the major issue due to the narrowing of the coronary artery by plaque formation on the artery wall, which causes an inadequate flow of oxygen and blood to the heart and is called ‘coronary artery disease’. The CVD death rate increased by up to 15% in 2016 (~17.6 million) compared to the past decade. This tremendous increment urges the development of a suitable biomarker for rapid and early diagnosis. Currently, C-reactive protein (CRP) is considered an outstanding biomarker for quick and accurate outcomes in clinical analyses. Various techniques have also been used to diagnose CVD, including surface plasmon resonance (SPR), colorimetric assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluoro-immunoassays, chemiluminescent assays, and electrical measurements. This review discusses such diagnostic strategies and how current, cutting-edge technologies have enabled the development of high-performance detection methodologies. Concluding remarks have been made concerning the clinical significance and the use of nanomaterial in medical diagnostics towards nanotheranostics.
Cardiovascular disease, C-Reactive protein, biosensor, clinical biomarker, nanomaterial, highperformance detection.
Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis