C. Crisafulli, A. Drago, A. Sidoti and A. Serretti Pages 312 - 330 ( 19 )
Background. Antipsychotic medications (APM) are the first line pharmacological treatment for psychotic disorders and other behavioral disorders. Nevertheless, their use causes a number of side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). EPS decrease the efficacy of the antipsychotic treatments by causing poorer compliance to the treatment, stigma and a poorer quality of life for patients. Genetic studies hold the potential to unravel the molecular underpinnings of the EPS induced by APM but results are not conclusive and are far to be used in clinical practice despite decades of research. A more sophisticated selection of the list of genetic mutations explaining the genetic variance of EPS induced by APM could help in the definition of a personalized treatments for patients. Moreover, it would increase the quality of the current treatments with APM. Methods: We reviewed the literature searching for the genetic association studies focused on dystonia, parkinsonism, akathisia and tardive dyskinesia. Moreover, we reviewed the current biological knowledge of the APM induced side effects. Finally, we provide a reasoned list of candidate genes and their genetic variations, with the aim of identifying a list of candidates for APM induced EPS genetic investigations. Results: Variations located within PIK3CA (phosphoinositide-3- kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide), PLA2G4A (phospholipase A2, group IVA, cytosolic, calcium-dependent), PRKCA (protein kinase C, alpha), PRKACG (Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase 110 kDa catalytic subunit gamma), ERK-1 (extracellular signalregulated kinase 1 (MAPK3)), ERK-2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (MAPK1)), GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha stimulating activity polypeptide 1), PLCB1 (phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)) and ITPR1 (inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1) were found to be relevant for APM induced EPS. Some of the genes are classical candidates for this kind of research, others were never investigated. For each of these genes we provide a list of variations that balances the limitations of multitesting with the advantages of the tagging approach. Conclusions: We undertook a review of the literature about the APM induced EPM to provide some rational genetic candidates to be tested in further genetic investigations.
Gene, genetic variations, extrapyramidal symptoms, antipsychotics
Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Viale Carlo Pepoli 5, 40123 Bologna, Italy.