Antonis D. Tsiailanis, Andreas G. Tzakos and Thomas Mavromoustakos* Pages 2697 - 2706 ( 10 )
Drugs have to overcome numerous barriers to reach their desired therapeutic targets. In several cases, drugs, especially the highly lipophilic molecules, suffer from low solubility and bioavailability and therefore their desired targeting is hampered. In addition, undesired metabolic products might be produced or off-targets could be recognized. Along these lines, nanopharmacology has provided new technological platforms, to overcome these boundaries. Specifically, numerous vehicle platforms such as cyclodextrins and calixarenes have been widely utilized to host lipophilic drugs such as antagonists of the angiotensin II AT1 receptor (AT1R), as well as quercetin and silibinin. The encapsulation of these drugs in supramolecules or other systems refines their solubility and metabolic stability, increases their selectivity and therefore decreases their effective dose and improves their therapeutic index. In this mini review we report on the formulations of silibinin and AT1R antagonist candesartan in a 2-HP-β-cyclodextrin host molecule, which displayed enhanced cytotoxicity and increased silibinin’s and candesartan’s stability, respectively. Moreover, we describe the encapsulation of quercetin in gold nanoparticles bearing a calixarene supramolecular host. Also, the encapsulation of temozolomide in a calixarene nanocapsule has been described. Finally, we report on the activity enhancement that has been achieved upon using these formulations as well as the analytical and computational methods we used to characterize these formulations and explore the molecular interactions between the host and quest molecules.
Nanotechnology, calixarenes, cyclodextrins, AT1 antagonists, quercetin, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, silibinin, temozolomide.
Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou 15771