Firoz Anwar*, Salma Naqvi, Fahad A. Al-Abbasi, Nauroz Neelofar, Vikas Kumar, Ankit Sahoo and Mohammad Amjad Kamal* Pages 2392 - 2408 ( 17 )
The last couple of months have witnessed the world in a state of virtual standstill. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has overtaken the globe to economic and social lockdown. Many patients with COVID-19 have compromised immunity, especially in an aged population suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD).
Alteration in dopaminergic neurons and deficiency of dopamine in PD patients are the most common symptoms affecting 1% population above the age of 60 years. The compromised immune system and inflammatory manifestation in PD patients make them an easy target. The most common drugs under trial for COVID-19 are remdesivir, favipiravir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin along with adjunct drugs like amantadine with some monoclonal antibodies.
Presently, clinically US FDA approved drugs in PD include Levodopa, catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors, (Entacapone and Tolcapone), dopamine agonists (Bromocriptine, Ropinirole, Pramipexole, and Rotigotine), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors (Selegiline and Rasagiline), amantadine and antimuscarinic drugs. The drugs have established mechanisms of action on PD patients with known pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties along with dose and adverse effects.
Conclusion and relevance of this review focus on the drugs that can be tried on PD patients with SAR CoV-2 infection, in particular, amantadine that has been approved by all the developed countries as a common drug possessing both antiviral properties by downregulation of CTSL, lysosomal pathway disturbance and change in pH necessary to uncoat the viral proteins and anti- Parkinson properties. To deal with the significant prognostic adverse effect of SARS-CoV-2 on PD, the present-day treatment options, clinical presentation and various mechanisms are the need of the hour.
COVID-19, Parkinson disease, amantadine, SARS-CoV-2, treatment, pH disturbance.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Gulf Medical University, Ajman, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand, Natural Product Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shalom Institute of Health and Allied Sciences, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj, Natural Product Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shalom Institute of Health and Allied Sciences, SHUATS, Naini, Prayagraj, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah