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Review Article

Natural COX-2 Inhibitors as Promising Anti-inflammatory Agents: An Update

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 18 ]


Jiahua Cui* and Jinping Jia*   Pages 3622 - 3646 ( 25 )


COX-2, a key enzyme that catalyzed the rate-limiting steps in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, played a pivotal role in the inflammatory process. Different from other family members, COX-2 was barely detectable in normal physiological conditions and highly inducible during the acute inflammatory response of human bodies to injuries or infections. Therefore, the therapeutic utilization of selective COX-2 inhibitors has already been considered as an effective approach for the treatment of inflammation with diminished side effects. Currently, both traditional and newer NSAIDs are the commonly prescribed medications that treat inflammatory diseases by targeting COX-2. However, due to the cardiovascular side-effects of the NSAIDs, finding reasonable alternatives for these frequently prescribed medicines are a hot spot in medicinal chemistry research. Naturallyoccurring compounds have been reported to inhibit COX-2, thereby possessing beneficial effects against inflammation and certain cell injury. The review mainly concentrated on recently identified natural products and derivatives as COX-2 inhibitors, the characteristics of their structural core scaffolds, their anti-inflammatory effects, molecular mechanisms for enzymatic inhibition, and related structure-activity relationships. According to the structural features, the natural COX-2 inhibitors were mainly divided into the following categories: natural phenols, flavonoids, stilbenes, terpenoids, quinones, and alkaloids. Apart from the anti-inflammatory activities, a few dietary COX-2 inhibitors from nature origin also exhibited chemopreventive effects by targeting COX-2-mediated carcinogenesis. The utilization of these natural remedies in future cancer prevention was also discussed. In all, the survey on the characterized COX-2 inhibitors from natural sources paves the way for the further development of more potent and selective COX-2 inhibitors in the future.


COX-2 inhibitors, natural products, flavonoids, terpenoids, structure-activity relationships, antiinflammatory agents, anticancer.


School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240

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