Rajesh Kumar, Seetha Harilal, Simone Carradori* and Bijo Mathew* Pages 2657 - 2696 ( 40 )
A few decades ago, the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) was low and is now the fourth in the list of deadly cancers producing nearly a million deaths annually. A population that is aging along with risk factors such as smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle with little or no physical activity, and non-healthy food habits of developed countries can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The balance in gut microbiota and the metabolites produced during bacterial fermentation within the host plays a significant role in regulating intestinal diseases as well as colorectal cancer development. Recent progress in the understanding of illness resulted in multiple treatment options such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, including targeted therapy and multitherapies. The treatment plan for CRC depends on the location, stage and grade of cancer as well as genomic biomarker tests. Despite all the advancements made in the genetic and molecular aspects of the disease, the knowledge seems inadequate as the drug action as well as the wide variation in drug response did not appear strongly correlated with the individual molecular and genetic characteristics, which suggests the requirement of comprehensive molecular understanding of this complex heterogeneous disease. Furthermore, multitherapies or a broad spectrum approach, which is an amalgamation of the various promising as well as effective therapeutic strategies that can tackle heterogeneity and act on several targets of the disease, need to be validated in clinical studies. The latest treatment options have significantly increased the survival of up to three years in the case of advanced disease. The fact that colorectal cancer is developed from a polypoid precursor, as well as the symptoms of the disease that occur at an advanced stage, underlines how screening programs can help early detection and decrease mortality as well as morbidity from CRC.
Colorectal cancer, targeted therapy, natural compounds, microbiota, multitherapies, morbidity from CRC.
Department of Pharmacy, Kerala University of Health Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, Department of Pharmacy, Kerala University of Health Sciences, Thrissur, Kerala, Department of Pharmacy, “G. d’Annunzio” University of Chieti-Pescara, via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi-682 041