Rama Rao Malla*, Gugalavath Shailender and Mohammad Amjad Kamal Pages 8182 - 8202 ( 21 )
Tumour microenvironment (TME) is a resident of a variety of cells, which are devoted to the heterogeneous population of the tumour. TME establishes a communication network for crosstalk and signalling between tumour cells, stroma, and other interstitial cells. The cross-communication drives the reprogramming of TME cells, which promote cancer progression and metastasis via diverse signalling pathways. Recently, TMEderived exosomes are recognized as critical communicators of TME cell reprogramming. This review addresses the role of TME-derived exosomes in the modulation of stroma, including reprogramming the stromal cells, ECM and tumour cell metabolism, as well as neoplastic transformation. Subsequently, we described the role of exosomes in pre-metastatic niche development, maintenance of stemness and tumour vasculature, as well as development of drug resistance. We also explored tumour-derived exosomes in precision, including diagnosis, drug delivery, and vaccine development. We discussed the currently established bioengineered exosomes as carriers for chemotherapeutic drugs, RNAi molecules, and natural compounds. Finally, we presented tetraspanin and DNA-based precision methods for the quantification of tumour-derived exosomes. Overall, TMEderived exosome-mediated reprogramming of TME and precision strategies could illuminate the potential mechanisms for targeted therapeutic intervention.
Angiogenesis, cancer stem cells, exosomes, metastasis, tumour microenvironment, signalling pathways.
Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam 530045, Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Science, GITAM (Deemed to be University), Visakhapatnam 530045, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589