Hiromi Sakai*, Naoko Kobayashi, Tomoko Kure and Chie Okuda Pages 591 - 606 ( 16 )
Clinical situations arise in which blood for transfusion becomes scarce or unavailable. Considerable demand for a transfusion alternative persists because of various difficulties posed by blood donation and transfusion systems. Hemoglobin-vesicles (Hb- V) are artificial oxygen carriers being developed for use as a transfusion alternative. Just as biomembranes of red blood cells (RBCs) do, phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) for Hb encapsulation can protect the human body from the toxic effects of molecular Hb. The main HbV component, Hb, is obtained from discarded human donated blood. Therefore, HbV can be categorized as a biologic agent targeting oxygen for peripheral tissues. The purification procedure strictly eliminates the possibility of viral contamination. It also removes all concomitant unstable enzymes present in RBC for utmost safety from infection. The deoxygenated HbVs, which are storable for over the years at ambient temperature, can function as an alternative to blood transfusion for resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock and O2 therapeutics. Moreover, a recent study clarified beneficial effects for anti- oxidation and anti-inflammation by carbon monoxide (CO)-bound HbVs. Autoxidation of HbV (HbO2 → metHb + O2 -.) is unavoidable after intravenous administration. Co-injection of methylene blue can extract the intraerythrocytic glycolytic electron energy effectively and reduce metHb. Other phenothiazine dyes can also function as electron mediators to improve the functional life span of HbV. This review paper summarizes recent progress of the research and development of HbV, aimed at clinical applications.
Artificial blood, blood substitutes, carbon monoxide, electron mediator, glycolytic electron energy, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, liposomes, NAD(P)H.
Department of Chemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara 634-8521, Department of Chemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara 634-8521, Department of Chemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara 634-8521, Department of Chemistry, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara 634-8521