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Review Article

COVID-19: The Significance of Platelets, Mitochondria, Vitamin D, Serotonin and the Gut Microbiota

[ Vol. 28 , Issue. 37 ]


István Bókkon*, Gábor Kapócs, András Vucskits, Attila Erdöfi-Szabó, Jan Vagedes , Felix Scholkmann and Henrik Szöke   Pages 7634 - 7657 ( 24 )


We provide a brief review of the significance of platelets, mitochondria, vitamin D, serotonin, and the gut microbiome in COVID-19. We hypothesize that hyperactive platelets and mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as low vitamin D level, gut dysbiosis, and increased serum serotonin produced by enterochromaffin cells, may all represent important aspects in the pathophysiology of COVID-19.


Platelets, mitochondria, vitamin D, serotonin, gut-brain axis, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2.


Vision Research Institute, Neuroscience and Consciousness Research Department, Lowell, MA, Buda Family-Centered Mental Health Centre, Department of Psychiatry and Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Budapest, Business Development Manager Eastern Europe at Phytobiotics, Budapest, BioLabor Biophysical- and Laboratories Services Ltd., Budapest, University of Tuebingen, Children’s Hospital, Tuebingen, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Department of Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pecs, Pecs

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