Mamona Mushtaq, Sehrish Naz, Keykavous Parang and Zaheer Ul-Haq* Pages 7767 - 7802 ( 36 )
Dengue, the oldest and the most prevalent mosquito-borne illness, is caused by the dengue virus (DENV), from the family of Flaviviridae. It infects approximately 400 million individuals per annum, with approximately half of the global population residing in high-risk areas. The factors attributed to the geographic expansion of dengue, include urbanization, population density, modern means of transportation, international travels, habit modification, climate change, virus genetics, vector capacity, and poor vector control. Despite the significant progress made in the past against dengue, no effective antiviral therapy is currently available. Among the structural and non-structural proteins encoded by DENV genome, the NS2B−NS3 protease complex is amongst the extensively studied targets for the development of antiviral therapeutics owing to its multiple roles in virus life cycle. Furthermore, protease inhibitors were found to be successful in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Likewise, several peptidic, peptide derived/peptidomimetic, and small molecules inhibitors have been identified as DENV protease inhibitors. Unfortunately, none of them have resulted in a clinically approved drug. Considering all the abovementioned facts, this review descriptively explains the molecular mechanism and therapeutic potential of DENV protease along with an up to date information on various competitive inhibitors reported against DENV protease. This review might be helpful for the researchers working in this area to understand the critical aspects of DENV protease that will help them develop effective and novel inhibitors against DENV to protect lives of millions of people worldwide.
Dengue, DENV, inhibitors, peptides, peptidomimetic, protease, small molecules.
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman, University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, California, Irvine, CA 92618, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi