Azzurra Chiara De Maio, Giovanna Basile, Domenico Iacopetta, Alessia Catalano*, Jessica Ceramella, Danilo Cafaro, Carmela Saturnino and Maria Stefania Sinicropi Pages 4216 - 4234 ( 19 )
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mainly affecting the colon and the rectum. Its main characteristics include relapsing and remitting mucosal inflammation, starting in the rectum and typically extending continuously proximally through part of or the entire colon. UC pathogenesis depends on multiple factors, such as genetic predisposition, defects in the epithelial barrier, dysregulated immune responses, and environmental causes. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, mucus discharge, bloody diarrhoea, incontinence, nocturnal defecations, fever, and anemia. Existing therapies for UC include 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and its derivatives, steroids, immunosuppressants, and biological drugs. However, limited efficacy and unwanted adverse effects hardly limit these strategies of treatment. In the last decades, research studies have been driven towards complementary and alternative medicines for the treatment of UC. Various nutraceuticals have exhibited promising results in modulating intestinal inflammation while improving symptoms. These compounds possess a wide spectrum of positive health effects evidenced by in vitro studies, characterized by their involvement in antioxidant defenses, cell proliferation, and gene expression. The present review analyzes the available data about the different types of nutraceuticals and their potential effectiveness as adjuvant therapy of IBD, with particular emphasis to UC.
Ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, nutraceuticals, curcumin, naringenin, oleuropein.