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Research Article

Alamandine Induces Neuroprotection in Ischemic Stroke Models

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 19 ]


Sthéfanie C.A. Gonçalves, Beatriz L.T. Bassi, Lucas M. Kangussu, Daniele T. Alves, Lorena K.S. Ramos, Lorena F. Fernandes, Marco T.R. Alves, Ruben Sinisterra, Gisele E. Bruch, Robson A.S. Santos, André R. Massensini* and Maria J. Campagnole-Santos   Pages 3483 - 3498 ( 16 )


Background and Objective: Stroke, a leading cause of mortality and disability, characterized by neuronal death, can be induced by a reduction or interruption of blood flow. In this study, the role of Alamandine, a new peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, was evaluated in in-vitro and in-vivo brain ischemia models.

Methods: In the in-vitro model, hippocampal slices from male C57/Bl6 mice were placed in a glucose-free aCSF solution and bubbled with 95% N2 and 5% CO2 to mimic brain ischemia. An Alamandine concentration-response curve was generated to evaluate cell damage, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and cell death. In the in-vivo model, cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion was induced by bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries (BCCAo-untreated) in SD rats. An intracerebroventricular injection of Alamandine was given 20–30 min before BCCAo. Animals were subjected to neurological tests 24 h and 72 h after BCCAo. Cytokine levels, oxidative stress markers, and immunofluorescence were assessed in the brain 72 h after BCCAo.

Results: Alamandine was able to protect brain slices from cellular damage, excitotoxicity and cell death. When the Alamandine receptor was blocked, protective effects were lost. ICV injection of Alamandine attenuated neurological deficits of animals subjected to BCCAo and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons/cells. Furthermore, Alamandine induced anti-inflammatory effects in BCCAo animals as shown by reductions in TNFα, IL- 1β, IL-6, and antioxidant effects through attenuation of the decreased SOD, catalase, and GSH activities in the brain.

Conclusion: This study showed, for the first time, a neuroprotective role for Alamandine in different ischemic stroke models.


Renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, brain ischemia, OGD, ICV, cytokines, neurological deficit.


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