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Review Article

The Potential of Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 26 ]


Akram Keramat, Jamileh Kadkhoda, Raheleh Farahzadi, Ezzatollah Fathi and Soodabeh Davaran*   Pages 4529 - 4546 ( 18 )


Nanotechnology is a pioneer field of study for engineering smart nanosystems in targeted diagnosis and treatment in cancer therapy. Effective treatment for various types of solid tumors should ideally target malignant cells and tissue while having no effect on healthy cells in the body. Nano-sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have phenomenal chemical versatility, high surface area ratio, and supernatural physical properties. The synergistic effects caused by the well-defined assembly of GO and rGO surface generate not only essential optical, mechanical, but also electronic behaviors. In multimodal cancer therapy, developing innovative multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with significant potential is extensively considered. GO and rGO are programmable targeted delivery systems infused with photonic energy that may be used in photothermal treatment. Its remarkable properties indicated its applications as a biosensor, bio-imaging for cancer diagnosis. In this current review, we show a remarkable highlight about GO, rGO, and discuss the notable applications for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and provide an overview of possible cellular signaling pathways that are affected by GO, rGO in cancer treatment.


Graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide, cancer diagnosis, targeted delivery, photothermal, biosensor, bioimaging, cell signaling.


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