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Review Article

A State-of-the-art Review and Prospective Therapeutic Applications of Prenyl Flavonoids as Chemosensitizers against Antifungal Multidrug Resistance in <i>Candida albicans</i>

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 24 ]


María Daniela Santi, María Gabriela Ortega and Mariana Andrea Peralta*   Pages 4251 - 4281 ( 31 )


Multidrug resistance (MDR) in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in two or more drug classes. This phenomenon has been increasingly reported since the rise in the incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients at the end of the last century.

After the discovery of efflux pump overexpression as a principal mechanism causing MDR in Candida strains, drug discovery targeting fungal efflux transporters has had a growing impact. Chemosensitization aims to enhance azole intracellular concentrations through combination therapy with transporter inhibitors. Consequently, the use of drug efflux inhibitors combined with the antifungal agent will sensitize the pathogen. As a result, the use of lower drug concentrations will reduce possible adverse effects on the host.

Through an extensive revision of the literature, this review aims to provide an exhaustive and critical analysis of the studies carried out in the past two decades regarding the chemosensitization strategy to cope with multidrug resistance in C. albicans. This work provides a deep analysis of the research on the inhibition of drug-efflux membrane transporters by prenylated flavonoids and the interactions of these phytocompounds with azole antifungals as an approach to chemosensitize multidrug-resistant C. albicans strains. We highlight the importance of prenylflavonoids and their particular chemical and pharmacological characteristics that make them excellent candidates with therapeutic potential as chemosensitizers. Finally, we propose the need for further research on prenyl flavonoids as inhibitors of drug-efflux mediated fungal resistance.


Prenyl flavonoids, antifungal multidrug resistance, Candida albicans, ABC transporters, MFS transporters, structure-activity relationship.


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