Alexandra Pusta, Mihaela Tertis, Florin Graur, Cecilia Cristea* and Nadim Al Hajjar Pages 4363 - 4390 ( 28 )
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignancy associated with high mortality and increasing incidence. Early detection of this disease could help increase survival and overall patient benefit. Non-invasive strategies for the diagnosis of this medical condition are of utmost importance. In this scope, the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers can provide a useful diagnostic tool. Aptamers are short, single-stranded DNAs or RNAs that can specifically bind selected analytes and act as pseudo-biorecognition elements that can be employed for electrode functionalization. Also, other types of DNA sequences can be used to construct DNA-based biosensors applied for the quantification of hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers. Herein, we analyze recent examples of aptasensors and DNA biosensors for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers, like micro- RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, exosomes, circulating tumor cells, and proteins. The literature data are discussed comparatively in a critical manner, highlighting the advantages of using electrochemical biosensors in diagnosis, as well as the use of nanomaterials and biocomponents in the functionalization of electrodes for improved sensitivity and selectivity.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), aptamers, biomarkers, electrochemical biosensors, DNA sequences, miRNAs.