Justyna Suwara, Ewa Radzikowska-Cieciura, Arkadiusz Chworos and Roza Pawlowska* Pages 1232 - 1255 ( 24 )
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is one of the most important molecules of life, present both inside the cells and extracellularly. It is an essential building block for nucleic acids biosynthesis and crucial intracellular energy storage. However, one of the most interesting functions of ATP is the role of a signaling molecule. Numerous studies indicate the involvement of ATP-dependent pathways in maintaining the proper functioning of individual tissues and organs. Herein, the latest data indicating the ATP function in the network of intra- and extracellular signaling pathways including purinergic signaling, MAP kinase pathway, mTOR and calcium signaling are collected. The main ATP-dependent processes maintaining the proper functioning of the nervous, cardiovascular and immune systems, as well as skin and bones, are summarized. The disturbances in the ATP amount, its cellular localization, or interaction with target elements may induce pathological changes in signaling pathways leading to the development of serious diseases. The impact of an ATP imbalance on the development of dangerous health dysfunctions such as neurodegeneration diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancers and immune pathogenesis are discussed here.
ATP, adenosine triphosphate, ATP-dependent pathways, purinergic signaling, nervous system, cardiovascular diseases.