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Review Article

Potential Application of Cephalosporins Carried in Organic or Inorganic Nanosystems against Gram-Negative Pathogens

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 31 ]


Brenda Maria Silva Bezerra, Sara Efigênia Dantas de Mendonça y Araujo, Analara Cordeiro de Macêdo, Kammila Martins Nicolau Costa, Mariana Rillo Sato and João Augusto Oshiro-Junior*   Pages 5212 - 5229 ( 18 )


Cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics, classified into five generations and extensively used in clinical practice against infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens, including Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. Commercially, conventional pharmaceutical forms require high doses to ensure clinical efficacy. Additionally, β-lactam resistance mechanisms, such as the production of enzymes (called extended-spectrum β-lactamases) and the low plasma half-life of these antibiotics, have been challenging in clinical therapy based on the use of cephalosporins. In this context, its incorporation into nanoparticles, whether organic or inorganic, is an alternative to temporally and spatially control the drug release and improve its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic limitations. Considering this, the present review unites the cephalosporins encapsulated into organic and inorganic nanoparticles against resistant and nonresistant enterobacteria. We divide cephalosporin generation into subtopics in which we discuss all molecules approved by regulatory agencies. In addition, changes in the side chains at positions R1 and R2 of the central structure of cephalosporins for all semisynthetic derivatives developed were discussed and presented, as the changes in these groups are related to modifications in pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, respectively. Ultimately, we exhibit the advances and differences in the release profile and in vitro activity of cephalosporins incorporated in different nanoparticles.


Cephalosporins, nanoparticles, antimicrobial activity, infections, enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa, organic or inorganic Nanosystems, gram-negative pathogens.


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