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Review Article

Azole Derivatives: Recent Advances as Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 2 ]


Leila Emami, Zeinab Faghih, Elaheh Ataollahi, Sara Sadeghian, Zahra Rezaei* and Soghra Khabnadideh*   Pages 220 - 249 ( 30 )


Background: Azoles are the famous and widespread scaffold in the pharmaceutical industry due to their wide range of activities, high efficacy, good tolerability, and oral availability. Furthermore, azole derivatives have attracted attention as potent antimicrobial agents.

Introduction: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of pharmacological aspects of the main scaffolds of azoles, including imidazole, benzimidazole, triazole, and tetrazole, which possess antimicrobial activity, reported from 2016 to 2020, as well as all of our publication in this field. In addition, we discuss the relationship between structure and activity and molecular docking studies of the azole derivatives to provide critical features and valuable information for the synthesis of novel azole compounds with desirable biological activities. The presented structures in this review have been tested against several bacteria and fungi, such as E. coli and C. albicans, which have been common in all of these studies.

Results: A comparison of the reported MIC for tested compounds showed fluconazole base structures as the most active antifungal agents, and triazole derivatives bearing nitrophenyl and coumarin moieties to have the most dominant antibacterial activity.

Conclusion: Triazole and imidazole scaffolds are more important for designing antimicrobial compounds than other azole derivatives, like benzimidazole or tetrazole. All the most active compounds were observed to fulfill the Lipinski rule.


Azole, antimicrobial, molecular docking, SAR, MIC, Lipinski rules.


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