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Review Article

Antibody Responses and CNS Pathophysiology of Mucormycosis in Chronic SARS Cov-2 Infection: Current Therapies Against Mucormycosis

[ Vol. 29 , Issue. 32 ]


Narasimha M. Beeraka, Junqi Liu, Olga Sukocheva, Mikhail Y. Sinelnikov and Ruitai Fan*   Pages 5348 - 5357 ( 10 )


The incidence rate of opportunistic secondary infections through invasive fungi has been observed to be 14.5% to 27% in the SARS CoV pandemic during the year 2003. However, the incidence of SARS CoV-2 is accompanied by a substantial rise in secondary opportunistic infections like mucormycosis (black fungus), mainly in the immunocompromised individuals and diabetic patients taking steroids. Substantial rates of COVID-19 cases with mucormycosis were reported in India and other parts of the world. Previous research reports delineated the ability of Mucorales to invade the various tissues like lungs, brain, and sinus through the GRP78, and subsequently, this infection could invoke crusting, edema, and necrosis of the brain parenchyma, ptosis, proptosis, and vision loss due to intraorbital and intracranial complications. Similarities of these pathophysiological complications with already existing diseases are causing clinicians to face several challenges in order to diagnose and treat this disease effectively at the early stage. This minireview depicts the mucormycosis-induced immune and pathophysiological alterations in COVID-19 patients comorbid with diabetes and immunosuppression and also reported the various clinical manifestations, the therapeutic modalities, and the failures of anti-fungal vaccines. Therefore, the emerging mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients needs rapid investigation and selective optimization of the effective therapeutic modalities, including antifungal vaccines, to minimize the mortality rate.


Mucormycosis, corticosteroids, antifungal therapy failure, clinical reports, CNS pathophysiology, chronic SARS Cov-2, antibody responses.


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