Edyta Mikuła*, Jaroslav Katrlík and Ligia R. Rodrigues Pages 5795 - 5814 ( 20 )
Background: Biomarkers are characteristic molecules that can serve as indicators of biological process status or condition; here, they are being studied with special relevance to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). This disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder very difficult to study given the site of pathology and due to a clinical phenotype that fluctuates over time. Currently, there is no definitive diagnostic test for Parkinson’s Disease; thus, clinicians hope that the detection of crucial biomarkers will help in the symptomatic and presymptomatic diagnostics and provide surrogate endpoints to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of new treatments.
Methods: Electrochemical aptasensors are excellent analytical tools that are used in the detection of PD biomarkers, as they are portable, easy to use, and perform real-time analysis.
Results: In this review, we discuss the most important clinical biomarkers for PD, highlighting their physiological role and function in the disease. Herein, we review, for the first time, innovative aptasensors for the detection of current potential PD biomarkers based on electrochemical techniques and discuss future alternatives, including ideal analytical platforms for point-of-care diagnostics.
Conclusion: These new tools will be critical not only in the discovery of sensitive, specific, and reliable biomarkers of preclinical PD, but also in the development of tests that can assist in the early detection and differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders and in monitoring disease progression. Various methods for fixing aptamers onto the sensor surfaces, enabling quantitative and specific PD biomarker detection present in synthetic and clinical samples, will also be discussed.
Parkinson’s disease, biomarkers detection, early diagnosis, electrochemical aptasensors, surface modification, aptamers.