Mehdi Sanati, Samaneh Aminyavari, Hamid Mollazadeh, Ali Motamed-Sanaye, Bahram Bibak, Elmira Mohtashami, Yong Teng, Amir R. Afshari* and Amirhossein Sahebkar* Pages 857 - 877 ( 21 )
In terms of frequency and aggressiveness, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is undoubtedly the most frequent and fatal primary brain tumor. Despite advances in clinical management, the response to current treatments is dismal, with a 2-year survival rate varying between 6 and 12 percent. Metformin, a derivative of biguanide widely used in treating type 2 diabetes, has been shown to extend the lifespan of patients with various malignancies. There is limited evidence available on the long-term survival of GBM patients who have taken metformin. This research examined the literature to assess the connection between metformin's anticancer properties and GBM development. Clinical findings, together with the preclinical data from animal models and cell lines, are included in the present review. This comprehensive review covers not only the association of hyperactivation of the AMPK pathway with the anticancer activity of metformin but also other mechanisms underpinning its role in apoptosis, cell proliferation, metastasis, as well as its chemo-radio-sensitizing behavior against GBM. Current challenges and future directions for developments and applications of metformin-based therapeutics are also discussed.
Glioblastoma multiforme, metformin, anticancer, AMPK, proliferation, cancer.