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Review Article

2,5-Diketopiperazines: A Review of Source, Synthesis, Bioactivity, Structure, and MS Fragmentation

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 9 ]


Jia Jia, Jianling Yao, Jiao Kong, Axiang Yu, Jing Wei, Ying Dong, Ruolan Song, Dongjie Shan, Xiangjian Zhong, Fang Lv, Qiqi Fan and Gaimei She*   Pages 1060 - 1085 ( 26 )


Background: 2,5-Diketopiperazines (DKPs), also called cyclic dipeptides, are the simplest peptide derivatives in nature that are formed by the condensation of two amino acids. They are an important category of bioactive substances with various structures.

Objective: This review focuses on the natural sources, synthetic processes, biological properties and MS fragmentation regularity of simple DKPs, in order to provide a reference for exploring future scientific and therapeutic potentials of these compounds.

Methods: Pertinent information was collected and organized from several electronic scientific databases (e.g., Web of Science, China Knowledge Resource Integrated, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wanfang Data and Google Scholar), PhD and MS dissertations. There are 107 articles published from the early 20th century to 2021 that were reviewed in this work.

Results: DKPs have been obtained from a broad range of natural resources, including fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals, and have been synthesized by chemical and biological methods. DKPs have various pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antibacterial, antithrombotic, neuron protective, analgesic, and other activities. Mass spectrometry is the most common method for the structural analysis of DKPs. DKPs can be quickly screened and identified by MS according to the mass spectrum fragmentation pattern.

Conclusion: As a category of relatively unexplored compounds, DKPs have been demonstrated to have various bioactivities, especially with antitumor and antibacterial activities. However, the existing research on DKPs is still in the early stage, and their application in drug development needs to be further studied.


2,5-Diketopiperazines, cyclic dipeptides, bioactivity, mass spectrometry, fragmentation, mass spectrum fragmentation pattern.


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