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Review Article

The Fractal Viewpoint of Tumors and Nanoparticles

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 3 ]


Athanasios Alexiou*, Christos Tsagkaris, Stylianos Chatzichronis, Andreas Koulouris, Ioannis Haranas, Ioannis Gkigkitzis, Georgios Zouganelis, Nobendu Mukerjee, Swastika Maitra, Niraj Kumar Jha, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Michail Nikolaou and Ghulam Md Ashraf   Pages 356 - 370 ( 15 )


Even though the promising therapies against cancer are rapidly improved, the oncology patients population has seen exponential growth, placing cancer in 5th place among the ten deadliest diseases. Efficient drug delivery systems must overcome multiple barriers and maximize drug delivery to the target tumors, simultaneously limiting side effects. Since the first observation of the quantum tunneling phenomenon, many multidisciplinary studies have offered quantum-inspired solutions to optimized tumor mapping and efficient nanodrug design. The property of a wave function to propagate through a potential barrier offer the capability of obtaining 3D surface profiles using imaging of individual atoms on the surface of a material. The application of quantum tunneling on a scanning tunneling microscope offers an exact surface roughness mapping of tumors and pharmaceutical particles. Critical elements to cancer nanotherapeutics apply the fractal theory and calculate the fractal dimension for efficient tumor surface imaging at the atomic level. This review study presents the latest biological approaches to cancer management based on fractal geometry.


Box-counting algorithm, chaos theory, cancer, drug delivery, fractal dimension, fractality, imaging data, lacunarity, pharmacokinetics, quantum tunneling, nanoparticles, scanning tunneling microscope, succolarity.


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