Amit Kumar Singh, Rajeev Kumar Singla and Abhay Kumar Pandey* Pages 3905 - 3926 ( 22 )
Phenolic acids are now receiving a great deal of interest as pervasive human dietary constituents that have various therapeutic applications against chronic and age-related diseases. One such phenolic acid that is being utilized in traditional medicine is chlorogenic acid (CGA). It is one of the most readily available phytochemicals that can be isolated from the leaves and fruits of plants, such as coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.), apples (Malus spp.), artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L.), carrots (Daucus carota L.), betel (Piper betle L.), burdock (Arctium spp.), etc. Despite its low oral bioavailability (about 33%), CGA has drawn considerable attention due to its wide range of biological activities and numerous molecular targets. Several studies have reported that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of CGA mainly account for its broad-spectrum pharmacological attributes. CGA has been implicated in exerting a beneficial role against dysbiosis by encouraging the growth of beneficial GUT microbes. At the biochemical level, its therapeutic action is mediated by free radical scavenging efficacy, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), and inhibition of the activity of nuclear factor- κβ (NF-κβ), thus helping in the management of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, hypertension etc. This review highlights the natural sources of CGA, its bioavailability, metabolism, pharmacotherapeutic potential, and underlying mechanisms of action for the clinical usefulness of CGA in the management of health disorders.
Phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, neuroprotective, anticancer, natural product.