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Review Article

Assessment of Atherosclerosis in Ischemic Stroke by means of Ultrasound of Extracranial/Intracranial Circulation and Serum, Urine, and Tissue Biomarkers

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 10 ]


Grigorios G. Dimas, Maria Zilakaki, Argyrios Giannopoulos, Stylianos Daios, Nikolaos Kakaletsis, Georgia Kaiafa, Triantafyllos Didangelos, Christos Savopoulos, Kyriakos Ktenidis and Thomas Tegos*   Pages 1107 - 1121 ( 15 )


It is a common practice to take into consideration age, diabetes, smoking, treated and untreated systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for the prediction of atherosclerosis and stroke. There are, however, ultrasound markers in use for the assessment of atherosclerosis and the evaluation of stroke risk. Two areas of investigation are of interest: the carotid artery and the intracranial arterial circulation. Again, within the domain of the carotid artery, two ultrasonic markers have attracted our attention: intima media thickness of the carotid artery and the presence of carotid plaque with its various focal characteristics. In the domain of intracranial circulation, the presence of arterial stenosis and the recruitment of collaterals are considered significant ultrasonic markers for the above-mentioned purpose. On the other hand, a series of serum, urine, and tissue biomarkers are found to be related to atherosclerotic disease. Future studies might address the issue of whether the addition of proven ultrasonic carotid indices to the aforementioned serum, urine, and tissue biomarkers could provide the vascular specialist with a better assessment of the atherosclerotic load and solidify their position as surrogate markers for the evaluation of atherosclerosis and stroke risk.


Carotid intima media thickness, carotid plaque, intracranial atherosclerosis, ultrasound, serum, tissue biomarkers.


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