Debora Santonocito* and Carmelo Puglia Pages 725 - 743 ( 19 )
Nowadays, lungs are the most common organs affected by diseases due to climate change, tobacco smoking, pollution and genetic factors. Conventional pharmacotherapy (oral medication or injection) is poorly selective; this causes toxicity problems and numerous systemic side effects. Furthermore, although pulmonary administration is an interesting drug administration route for treating lung diseases, inhalation therapy is complex mainly due to the lung defense mechanisms leading to rapid drug elimination. Pulmonary drug delivery using nanocarriers appears to be the best therapeutic strategy to overcome these issues. In fact, these nanosystems can reduce both drug therapeutic dose and side effects, improving patient compliance, avoiding alveolar macrophage clearance, protecting the drug from degradation processes, and providing a controlled and targeted drug release. Therefore, this review aims to analyze the scientific literature regarding the use of nanocarriers to treat the main lung diseases (cancer, asthma, infections). In particular, attention was devoted to liposomes and polymer- and lipid-based nanoparticles, being the topic of most published articles in the last decade.
Pulmonary drug delivery, lung, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, lung diseases.