Zahra Khoshbin, Neda Shakour, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Alexandra E. Butler and Amirhossein Sahebkar* Pages 3441 - 3471 ( 31 )
Diabetes is a chronic disease state in which the pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin, resulting in an elevation of blood glucose levels. As one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide, diabetes is recognized as a global health concern that, if undiagnosed or untreated, can lead to serious and life-threatening complications, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and diabetic retinopathy. Despite progress in the diagnosis of diabetes, limitations still exist with current analytical techniques, and, therefore, the development of precise sensing devices for on-site, real-time detection of diabetes is needed. Biosensors have contributed significantly to the field of diabetes healthcare, due to their cost-effectiveness, portability, ease of use, and rapid assay time. Recently, there has been a preference for the utilization of aptamers over antibodies in designing biosensors. Aptasensors, biosensors made with aptamers, offer potential in the diagnosis of diabetes. Aptamers, due to having lower molecular weight, low price, and stability over a wide temperature range and pH range, their in vitro synthesis, and the ability to refold after being removed from denaturing conditions compared to antibodies, have some distinctive characteristics as well as diverse types, such as optical FNA-based biosensors, colorimetric biosensors, fluorescent biosensors and electrochemical FNA-based biosensors. With this in mind, we highlight the recent developments and novel perspectives in the field of aptasensor design to quantitatively monitor diabetes biomarkers. Finally, some results are highlighted to offer a basis for the future design of aptasensor kits for diabetes diagnosis.
Aptamer, diabetes, biosensor, biomarker, nanoparticle, aptasensor.