Naser-Aldin Lashgari, Nazanin M. Roudsari, Saeideh Momtaz*, Amir H. Abdolghaffari*, Stephen L. Atkin* and Amirhossein Sahebkar* Pages 2562 - 2576 ( 15 )
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death globally. Activation of oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are contributory to the development of CVD. Pharmacological activities of vanillic acid have been investigated suggesting that they may have therapeutic utility clinically. Given its phenolic nature, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of vanillic acid have been shown to exert potent inhibitory activity against Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF- κB), the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), Nod‐like receptor family protein (NLRP), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Mitogen-Activated Signaling Proteins (MAPK) and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Vanillic acid has been shown to block pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppress inflammatory cascades. The inhibitory impact of vanillic acid on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression has also been demonstrated. Vanillic acid reduces oxidative-related markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Here, we review the cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of action of vanillic acid in CVD. Current potential applications of vanillic acid in CVD are discussed concerning preclinical and clinical studies.
Cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, atherosclerosis, vanillic acid, inflammation, oxidative stress.