D. Bhakta-Guha, M.E.M. Saeed, H.J. Greten and T. Efferth Pages 685 - 694 ( 10 )
Cancer is a leading cause of mortality and the annual incidence of new cancer cases is rising worldwide. Due to the frequent development of resistance and the side effects of established anti-cancer drugs, the quest for new drugs with improved therapeutic features goes on. In contrast to cytotoxic chemotherapy of the past, the concept of targeted chemotherapy attempts to increase specificity of therapy by attacking tumor-related mechanisms. A novel emerging treatment concept represents the inhibition of centrosomal clustering. The centrosome regulates mitotic spindle formation assuring uniform separation of chromosomes to daughter cells. Many tumors contain supernumerary centrosomes, which contribute to aneuploidy induction via multipolar mitotic spindle formation. As spindle multipolarity leads to cell death, tumor cells developed centrosomal clustering mechanism to prevent multipolar spindle formation by coalescence of multiple centrosomes into two functional spindle poles. Inhibition of centrosome clustering represents a novel strategy for drug development and leads to the formation of multipolar spindles and subsequent cell death. In the present review, we report advances in understanding the biology of centrosomal clustering as well as enlist compounds capable of inducing the formation of multipolar spindles such as indolquinolizines, integrin-linked kinase inhibitors (QLT-0267), noscapinoids (EM011), phthalamide derivatives (TC11), griseofulvin, phenanthridines (PJ-34), CCC1-01, CW069 GF-15, colcemid, nocodazole, paclitaxel, and vinblastine. We also present in silico result of compounds that bind to γ-tubulin under the ambit of centrosomal clustering inhibition. We observed maximum binding efficacy in GF-15, CW069, paclitaxel and larotaxel with GF-15 exhibiting least energy of -8.4 Kcal/mol and 0.7 μM Pki value.
Cancer, centrosomal clustering, multipolar spindle inducers, natural products, supernumerary centrosomes.
Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany.