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Research Article

The Derivatives of Cromolyn Ameliorate the Abnormal Misfolding of Amyloid Proteins and Neuroinflammation in the Neural Cells

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 39 ]


Joo-Hee Lee, Nivethasri Lakshmana Perumal, Sehee Kwon, Hee-Cheol Kim, Na-Hyun Ahn, Su-Bin Choi, Eunjin Hwang, Hyoryeong Song, David R. Elmaleh, Aryun Kim, Woong-Suk Yang, Cheorl-Ho Kim*, Byeong-Churl Jang*, Sungwoon Choi* and Seung-Hoon Yang*   Pages 4479 - 4491 ( 13 )


Background: The representative symptom of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) has mainly been mentioned to be misfolding of amyloid proteins, such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau protein. In addition, the neurological pathology related to neuroinflammatory signaling has recently been raised as an important feature in AD. Currently, numerous drug candidates continue to be investigated to reduce symptoms of AD, including amyloid proteins misfolding and neuroinflammation.

Objective: Our research aimed to identify the anti-AD effects of two chemical derivatives modified from cromoglicic acid, CNU 010 and CNU 011.

Methods: CNU 010 and CNU 011 derived from cromoglicic acid were synthesized. The inhibitory effects of Aβ and tau were identified by thioflavin T assay. Moreover, western blots were conducted with derivates CNU 010 and CNU 011 to confirm the effects on inflammation.

Results: CNU 010 and CNU 011 significantly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ and tau proteins. Moreover, they reduced the expression levels of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) signaling proteins, which are representative early inflammatory signaling markers. Also, the inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression referring to late inflammation were confirmed.

Conclusion: Our results showing multiple beneficial effects of cromolyn derivatives against abnormal aggregation of amyloid proteins and neuroinflammatory signaling provide evidence that CNU 010 and CNU 011 could be further developed as potential drug candidates for AD treatment.


Alzheimer's Disease, cromolyn sodium, derivate, beta-amyloid (1-42), tau proteins, neuroinflammation.


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