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Review Article

The Protective Effects of Silymarin on the Reproductive Toxicity: A Comprehensive Review

[ Vol. 30 , Issue. 39 ]


Tita Hariyanti, Ria Margiana, Moaed Emran Al-Gazally, Indrajit Patra, Ghaidaa Raheem Lateef Al-Awsi, Noora Hameed, Dilrabo Kayumova, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Larry Miguel Torres-Criollo, Yasser Fakri Mustafa, Razzagh Abedi-Firouzjah and Bagher Farhood*   Pages 4421 - 4449 ( 29 )


The reproductive system is extremely vulnerable to chemotherapy drugs, ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals, chemicals, and so on. These harmful stimuli are able to induce oxidative damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and other mechanisms in the reproductive organs, leading to different adverse reproductive effects. It was shown that using medicinal plants (medicinal herbs) can be an effective medication for the prevention and treatment of multiple health conditions. Silymarin is a medicinal herb extract, obtained from the seeds of Silybum marianum. This herbal agent is a nontoxic agent even at relatively high physiological dose values, which suggests that it is safe for use in the treatment of different diseases. The hepato-, neuro-, cardio- and nephro-protective effects of silymarin have been assessed previously. The protective activities of silymarin can point to anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory, and membrane-stabilizing properties. In this review, we aim to summarize current studies on the protective potentials of silymarin against reproductive toxicity. The molecular mechanisms of silymarin protection against cellular toxicity are also studied. Moreover, the findings obtained from improved formulations and delivery systems of silymarin have been addressed.


Reproductive toxicity, silymarin, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heavy metals, chemicals.


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