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Review Article

An Update on Parkinson’s Disease and its Neurodegenerative Counterparts

[ Vol. 31 , Issue. 19 ]


Hussaini Adam, Subash C.B. Gopinath*, M.K. Md Arshad, Tijjani Adam, Sreeramanan Subramaniam and Uda Hashim   Pages 2770 - 2787 ( 18 )


Introduction: Neurodegenerative disorders are a group of diseases that cause nerve cell degeneration in the brain, resulting in a variety of symptoms and are not treatable with drugs. Parkinson's disease (PD), prion disease, motor neuron disease (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinal cerebral dyskinesia (SCA), spinal muscle atrophy (SMA), multiple system atrophy, Alzheimer's disease (AD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) (ALS), pantothenate kinase-related neurodegeneration, and TDP-43 protein disorder are examples of neurodegenerative diseases. Dementia is caused by the loss of brain and spinal cord nerve cells in neurodegenerative diseases.

Background: Even though environmental and genetic predispositions have also been involved in the process, redox metal abuse plays a crucial role in neurodegeneration since the preponderance of symptoms originates from abnormal metal metabolism.

Method: Hence, this review investigates several neurodegenerative diseases that may occur symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease to understand the differences and similarities between Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders based on reviewing previously published papers.

Results: Based on the findings, the aggregation of alpha-synuclein occurs in Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other neurodegenerative diseases occur with different protein aggregation or mutations.

Conclusion: We can conclude that Parkinson's disease, Multiple system atrophy, and Dementia with Lewy bodies are closely related. Therefore, researchers must distinguish among the three diseases to avoid misdiagnosis of Multiple System Atrophy and Dementia with Lewy bodies with Parkinson's disease symptoms.


Brain disorder, lifestyle, reneration, Alzheimer, spinal cord, organ.


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