Parisa Maleki Dana, Jamal Hallajzadeh*, Zatollah Asemi*, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Bahman Yousefi Pages 1 - 14 ( 14 )
Melanoma accounts for the minority of skin cancer cases. However, it has the highest mortality rate among the subtypes of skin cancer. At the early stages of the disease, patients show a good prognosis after the surgery, but developing metastases leads to a remarkable drop in patients’ 5-year survival rate. Despite the advances made in the therapeutic approaches to this disease, melanoma treatment is still facing several obstacles. Systemic toxicity, water insolubility, instability, lack of proper biodistribution, inadequate cellular penetration, and rapid clearance are some of the challenges that should be addressed in the field of melanoma treatment. While various delivery systems have been developed to circumvent these challenges, chitosan-based delivery platforms have indicated significant success. Chitosan that is produced by the deacetylation of chitin can be formulated into different materials (e.g., nanoparticle, film, and hydrogel) due to its characteristics. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that chitosan-based materials can be used in drug delivery systems while offering a solution for the common problems in this area, such as enhancing biodistribution and skin penetration as well as the sustained release of the drugs. Herein, we reviewed the studies concerning the role of chitosan as a drug delivery system in melanoma and discussed how these drug systems are used for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs (e.g., doxorubicin and paclitaxel), genes (e.g., TRAIL), and RNAs (e.g., miRNA199a and STAT3 siRNA) successfully. Furthermore, we take a look into the role of chitosan-based nanoparticles in neutron capture therapy.
Chitosan, drug delivery, melanoma, chemotherapy, neutron capture therapy, skin cancer.