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Review Article

Involvement of Nrf2 Signaling in Lead-induced Toxicity


Mohammad-Reza Arabnezhad, Fatemeh Haghani, Ali Ghaffarian-Bahraman, Emad Jafarzadeh, Hamidreza Mohammadi, Javad Ghasemian Yadegari, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Michael Aschner, Majid Darroudi, Somayeh Marouzi and Saeed Samarghandian*   Pages 1 - 21 ( 21 )


Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is used as one of the main protective factors against various pathological processes, as it regulates cells resistant to oxidation. Several studies have extensively explored the relationship between environmental exposure to heavy metals, particularly lead (Pb), and the development of various human diseases. These metals have been reported to be able to, directly and indirectly, induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause oxidative stress in various organs. Since Nrf2 signaling is important in maintaining redox status, it has a dual role depending on the specific biological context. On the one hand, Nrf2 provides a protective mechanism against metal-induced toxicity; on the other hand, it can induce metalinduced carcinogenesis upon prolonged exposure and activation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize the latest knowledge on the functional interrelation between toxic metals, such as Pb and Nrf2 signaling.


Nrf2 pathway, lead, Pb, oxidative stress, carcinogenesis, toxicity.


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