Mohammad Ghanbari, Negin Sadi Khosroshahi, Maryam Alamdar, Adel Abdi, Aida Aghazadeh, Mohammad Pourfeizi and Mehdi Haghi* Pages 1 - 38 ( 38 )
Epigenetic mechanisms are crucial in regulating gene expression. These mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone modifications, like methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation. DNA methylation is associated with gene expression suppression; however, histone methylation can stimulate or repress gene expression depending on the methylation pattern of lysine or arginine residues on histones. These modifications are key factors in mediating the environmental effect on gene expression regulation. Therefore, their aberrant activity is associated with the development of various diseases. The current study aimed to review the significance of DNA and histone methyltransferases and demethylases in developing various conditions, like cardiovascular diseases, myopathies, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, aging, and central nervous system conditions. A better understanding of the epigenetic roles in developing diseases can pave the way for developing novel therapeutic approaches for affected patients.
Epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone methylation, methyltransferases, demethylases, human disease.