Siyu Hao, Dan Cai, Shuang Gou, Yan Li, Lin Liu, Xiaolong Tang, Yu Chen, Yueshui Zhao, Jing Shen, Xu Wu, Mingxing Li, Meijuan Chen, Xiaobing Li, Yuhong Sun, Li Gu, Wanping Li, Fang Wang, Chi Hin Cho, Zhangang Xiao and Fukuan Du* Pages 1 - 29 ( 29 )
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a class of highly reactive oxidizing molecules, including superoxide anion (O2 •−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), among others. Moderate levels of ROS play a crucial role in regulating cellular signaling and maintaining cellular functions. However, abnormal ROS levels or persistent oxidative stress can lead to changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME) that favor cancer development. This review provides an overview of ROS generation, structure, and properties, as well as their effects on various components of the TME. Contrary to previous studies, our findings reveal a dual effect of ROS on different components of the TME, whereby ROS can either enhance or inhibit certain factors, ultimately leading to the promotion or suppression of the TME. For example, H2O2 has dual effects on immune cells and non-- cellular components within the TME, while O2 •− has dual effects on T cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, each component demonstrates distinct mechanisms of action and ranges of influence. In the final section of the article, we summarize the current clinical applications of ROS in cancer treatment and identify certain limitations associated with existing therapeutic approaches. Therefore, this review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of ROS, highlighting their dual effects on different components of the TME, and exploring the potential clinical applications that may pave the way for future treatment and prevention strategies.
ROS, tumor, microenvironment, molecule, metabolism, therapy.