Elaheh Mohammadi, Behzad Behnam, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Ramin Rezaee, Ardavan Abiri, Mohammad Ramezani*, John P. Giesy* and Amirhossein Sahebkar*
The unique characteristics of nanoparticles (NPs) have captivated scientists in various fields of research. However, their safety profile has not been fully scrutinized. In this regard, the effects of NPs on the reproductive system of animals and humankind have been a matter of concern. In this article, we will review the potential reproductive toxicity of various types of NPs, including carbon nanomaterials, dendrimers, quantum dots, silica, gold, and magnetic nanoparticles, reported in the literature. We also mention some notable cases where NPs have elicited beneficial effects on the reproductive system. This review provides extensive insight into the effects of various NPs on sperm and ovum and the outcomes of their passage through blood-testis and placental barriers and accumulation in the reproductive organs.