Francisco David Rodriguez* and Rafael Covenas
Background: Numerous biochemical reactions leading to altered cell proliferation cause tumorigenesis and cancer treatment resistance. The mechanisms implicated include genetic and epigenetic changes, modified intracellular signaling, and failure of control mechanisms caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors alone or combined. No unique biochemical events are responsible; entangled molecular reactions conduct the resident cells in a tissue to display uncontrolled growth and abnormal migration. Copious experimental research supports the etiological responsibility of NK-1R (neurokinin-1 receptor) activation, alone or cooperating with other mechanisms, in cancer appearance in different tissues. Consequently, a profound study of this receptor system in the context of malignant processes is essential to design new treatments targeting NK-1R-deviated activity.
Method: This study reviews and discusses recent literature that analyzes the main signaling pathways influenced by the activation of neurokinin 1 full and truncated receptor variants. Also, the involvement of NK-1R in cancer development is discussed.
Conclusion: NK-1R can signal through numerous pathways and cross-talk with other receptor systems. The participation of override or malfunctioning NK-1R in malignant processes needs a more precise definition in different types of cancers to apply satisfactory and effective treatments. A long way has already been traveled: the current disposal of selective and effective NK-1R antagonists and the capacity to develop new drugs with biased agonistic properties based on the receptor's structural states with functional significance opens immediate research action and clinical application.
Neurokinin-1 receptor,truncated NK-1R,signaling pathways,G-protein-coupled receptors,NK-1R antagonists,cancer treatment.