Alaleh Valiallahi, Zahra Vazifeh, Zahra Rezanejad Gatabi, Maryam Davoudi and Iman Rezanezhad Gatabi*
Although leishmaniasis is one of the most common parasitic diseases, its traditional treatments suffer from some serious problems. To solve such issues, we can take advantage of the effective nanoparticle-based approaches to deliver anti-leishmanial agents into leishmania-infected macrophages either using passive targeting or using macrophage-related receptors. Despite the high potential of nanotechnology, Liposomal Amphotericin B (AmBisome®) is the only FDA-approved nanoparticle-based anti-leishmanial therapy. In an effort to find more anti-leishmanial nano-drugs, this 2011-2021 review study aimed to investigate the in-vivo and in-vitro effectiveness of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) in the delivery of some traditional anti-leishmanial drugs. Based on the results, PLGA-NPs could improve solubility, controlled release, trapping efficacy, bioavailability, selectivity, and mucosal penetration of the drugs, while they decreased resistance, dose/duration of administration and organotoxicity of the agents. However, none of these nano-formulations have been able to enter clinical trials so far. We summarized the data about the common problems of anti-leishmanial agents and the positive effects of various PLGA nano-formulations on reducing these drawbacks under both in-vitro and in-vitro conditions in three separate tables. Overall, this study proposes two AmB-loaded PLGA with a 99% reduction in parasite load as promising nanoparticles for further studies.
Poly (Lactic-co-glycolic Acid),Drug Delivery Systems,Leishmaniasis,Nanotechnology,Amphotericin B.,parasitic infection