Call for Papers  

Article Details

Research Article

Single-cell Sequencing Data Reveals Aggressive CD68-type Macrophages and Prognostic Models in Bladder Cancer

[ Vol. 31 , Issue. 12 ]


Chenyu Mao* and Nong Xu   Pages 1523 - 1538 ( 16 )


Background: The highly heterogeneous, complex pathological histology, and clinical phenotype in bladder cancer (BC) plague the prognostic management of BC to the present day.

Methods: This study was conducted using single-cell sequencing data from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) database (GSE135337). A descending, annotated analysis was performed to identify the cell types contributing to BC aggressiveness. BC cell sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were then combined with univariate, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), multivariate COX regression analysis to identify biomarkers of BC prognosis to construct a BC. We identified biomarkers of BC prognosis to construct a prognostic risk guidance system for BC. The feedback of patients in different risk strata to immunotherapy was analyzed. Finally, the regulation of prognostic genes on cancer cell activity was verified in vitro by Western blot and cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assays.

Results: Macrophages specifically expressing CD68 in BC were the cell type with the highest AUCell score, and CD68 was the biomarker of Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). CD68 macrophages were potentially the critical cell type in the aggressive BC subtype. Through univariate, LASSO, multivariate COX-based regression analysis. CTSS, GMFG, ANXA5, GSN, SLC2A3, and FTL were authenticated as prognostic biomarkers (p < 0.05) and composed the Risk Score. Patients in the low-risk group showed an excellent survival advantage (p < 0.01) and immunotherapy feedback. Additionally, inhibition of GSN expression decreased EMT activity to inhibit bladder cancer cell viability.

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study provided feedback on the immune cell types associated with aggressiveness in BC. Importantly, a prognostic management system for BC was created based on the genes involved, providing more insight into the aggressive pathological phenotype as well as the prognosis of BC.


Bladder cancer, single-cell sequencing, tumor heterogeneity, macrophages, prognosis, gene expression omnibus.


Read Full-Text article