Muhammad Akram, Shehryar Hameed, Abbas Hassan and Khalid Khan*
Background: Viral infections continue to increase morbidity and mortality severely. The flavivirus genus has fifty different species, including the dengue, Zika, and West Nile viruses that can infect 40% of individuals globally, who reside in at least a hundred different countries. Dengue, one of the oldest and most dangerous human infections, was initially documented by the Chinese Medical Encyclopedia in the Jin period. It was referred to as "water poison," connected to flying insects, i.e., Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. DENV causes some medical expressions like dengue hemorrhagic fever, acute febrile illness, and dengue shock syndrome.
Objective: According to the World Health Organization report of 2012, 2500 million people are in danger of contracting dengue fever worldwide. According to a recent study, 96 million of the 390 million dengue infections yearly show some clinical or subclinical severity. There is no antiviral drug or vaccine to treat this severe infection. It can be controlled by getting enough rest, drinking plenty of water, and using painkillers. The first dengue vaccine created by Sanofi, called Dengvaxia, was previously approved by the US-FDA in 2019. All four serotypes of the DENV1-4 have shown re-infection in vaccine recipients. However, the usage of Dengvaxia has been constrained by its adverse effects.
Conclusion: Different classes of compounds have been reported against DENV, such as nitrogen-containing heterocycles (i.e., imidazole, pyridine, triazoles quinazolines, quinoline, and indole), oxygen-containing heterocycles (i.e., coumarins), and some are mixed heterocyclic compounds of S, N (thiazole, benzothiazine, and thiazolidinediones), and N, O (i.e., oxadiazole). There have been reports of computationally designed compounds to impede the molecular functions of specific structural and non-structural proteins as potential therapeutic targets. This review summarized the current progress in developing dengue protease inhibitors.
Dengue proteases,NS2B,NS3,Dengue structural proteins,Dengue non-structural proteins,Polyprotein,viral infection,Flaviviruses