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Nucleoside Scaffolds and Carborane Clusters for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: Developments and Future Perspective


Ahmed Khalil* and Mohamed Shaker S. Adam   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )


Nucleosides containing carboranes are one of the most important boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy, BNCT, which are good substrates of hTK1. The development of several nucleosides containing carboranes at early stages led to the discovery of the first generation of 3CTAs by incorporating a hydrocarbon spacer between the thymidine scaffold and carborane cluster and attaching dihydroxylpropyl group on the second carbon (C2) atom of the carborane cluster (e.g., N5 and N5-2OH). Phosphorylation rate, tumor cellular uptake, and retention have been evaluated in parallel to change the length of the tether arm of spacers in these compounds. Many attempts were reported and discussed to overcome the disadvantage of the first generation of 3CTAs by a) incorporating modified spacers between thymidine and carborane clusters, such as ethyleneoxide, polyhydroxyl, triazole, and tetrazole units, b) attaching hydrophilic groups at C2 of the carborane cluster, c) transforming lipophilic closo-carboranes to hydrophilic nidocarborane. The previous modifications represented the second generation of 3CTAs to improve the hydrogen bond formation with the hTK1 active site. Moreover, amino acid prodrugs were developed to enhance biological and physicochemical properties. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of carboranyl thymidine analogues led to the roadmap for the development of the 3rd generation of the 3CTAs for BNCT


Nucleoside Scaffolds,Carborane Clusters,Boron Neutron Capture Therapy,structure-activity relationship (SAR),of carboranyl thymidine,binary cancer treatment


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