JITENDRA GUPTA, Abbas F. Almulla, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Nisreen Yasir Jasim, Zafar Aminov, Fahad Alsaikhan*, Pushpamala Ramaiah, Lathamangeswari Chinnasamy and Zanko Hassan Jawhar Pages 1 - 28 ( 28 )
Resistance to therapy and the toxicity of normal tissue are the major problems for efficacy associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Drug resistance is responsible for most cases of mortality associated with cancer. Furthermore, their side effects can decrease the quality of life for surviving patients. An enhancement in the tumor response to therapy and alleviation of toxic effects remain unsolved challenges. One of the interesting topics is the administration of agents with low toxicity to protect normal tissues and/or sensitize cancers to chemo/radiotherapy. Melatonin is a natural body hormone that is known as a multitasking molecule. Although it has antioxidant properties, a large number of experiments have uncovered interesting effects of melatonin that can increase the therapeutic efficacy of chemo/radiation therapy. Melatonin can enhance anticancer therapy efficacy through various mechanisms, cells such as the immune system, and modulation of cell cycle and death pathways, tumor suppressor genes, and also through suppression of some drug resistance mediators. However, melatonin may protect normal tissues through the suppression of inflammation, fibrosis, and massive oxidative stress in normal cells and tissues. In this review, we will discuss the distinct effects of melatonin on both tumors and normal tissues. We review how melatonin may enhance radio/chemosensitivity of tumors while protecting normal tissues such as the lung, heart, gastrointestinal system, reproductive system, brain, liver, and kidney.
Melatonin,Radiotherapy,Chemotherapy,Cancer Resistance,Normal Tissue,Toxicity