Xiaoyan Wang, Junqi Liu, Lakshmi Durga YN, Narasimha M Beeraka, Runze Zhou, Pengwei Lu, Ruixia Song, Mikhail Sinelnikov, Kuo Chen, Ruitai Fan and Di Zhao* Pages 1 - 27 ( 27 )
Conventional therapeutic modalities against the cancers such as surgery, chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) have limited efficacy due to drug resistance, and adverse effects. Recent developments in nanoscience emphasized novel approaches to overcome the aforementioned limitations and subsequently improve overall clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and radiodynamic therapy (RDT) can be used as cancer treatments due to their high selectivity, low drug resistance, and low toxicity. Mitocans are the therapeutic molecules that can produce anti-cancer effects by modulating mitochondria functions and they have significant implications in cancer therapy. Mitochondria- targeted therapy is a promising strategy in cancer treatment as these organelles play a crucial function in the regulation of apoptosis and metabolism in tumor cells and are more vulnerable to hyperthermia and oxidative damage. The aim of this review is used to explore the targeting efficacy of mitocans in the nanotherapeutic formulation when combined with therapies like PDT, PTT, RDT. We searched several databases include Pubmed, relemed, scopus, google scholar, Embase and collected the related information to the efficacy of mitocans in nanotherapeutics when combined with photo-radiotherapy to target chemo/radio-resisant tumor cells. In this review, we vividly described research reports pertinent to the selective delivery of chemotherapy molecules into specific sub-organelles which can significantly improve the efficiency of cancer treatment by targeting tumor cell metabolism. Furthermore, the rational design, functionalization and application of various mitochondrial targeting units, including organic phosphine/sulfur salts, quaternary ammonium salts, transition metal complexes, and mitochondria-targeted cancer therapy such as PDT, PTT, RDT, and others were summarized. Mainly, the efficacy of these modalities against mtDNA and additional nanotherapeutic strategies with photosensitizers, or radiotherapy to target mitochondrial metabolism in tumor cells with chemo/radio-resistance were delineated. This review can benefit nanotechnologists, oncologists, and radiation oncologists to develop rational designs and application of novel mitochondrial targeting drugs mainly to target metabolism in chemo/radio-resistant cancer cells in cancer therapy.
Cancer stem cells, Mitocans, uncouplers, nanosystems, chemistry, photosensitizers, chemo/ radio-resistance.