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Porphyrinuria in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review


Geir Bjørklund*, Yuliya Semenova, Afaf El-Ansary and Laila Y. Al‑Ayadhi   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )


Numerous studies demonstrated that the number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased remarkably in the past decade. A portion of ASD etiology, however, is attributed to environmental issues and genetic disorders. We highlighted a scoping review to principally evaluate the current information on mercury exposure in ASD children and to reveal knowledge gaps. Elevated porphyrins concentration in the urinary system related to mercury exposure, such as precoproporphyrin (prcP), coproporphyrin (cP), and pentacarboxyporphyrin (5cxP), was shown in comparison with controls. Moreover, high levels of urinary porphyrins have been elevated in response to heavy metal exposure. The related pattern (increased prcP, cP, and 5cxP) with Hg exposure may be used as biomarkers in the characteristics of ASD symptoms. However, this review highlighted the data gaps because the control groups were not genderand age-matched for ASD children.


Autism spectrum disorder, mercury exposure, urinary porphyrins, genetics, environmental factors, biomarkers.


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