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Gossypol Acetic Acid alleviates the Ferroptosis of Chondrocytes in Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting GPX4 Methylation


JingJing Shang, Chenwei Xiong, Wei Jiang, Zhentang Yu, Junjie Zhang, Yi Zhang, Long Han, Kaisong Miao, Changlin Yu, Yong Huang* and Xindie Zhou   Pages 1 - 18 ( 18 )


Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease, usually accompanied by degeneration of the articular cartilage, fibrosis, bone hyperplasia around the joint, and damage to the entire articular surface. Gossypol is a natural phenolic compound isolated from the seed of cotton plants, and gossypol acetic acid (GAA) is a medicinal form of Gossypol. Recently, various biological activities of GAA, including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects, have been widely reported. However, its effect on chondrocytes in OA has yet to be determined.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the effect of GAA on ferroptosis in OA chondrocytes. The effect of GAA on the cell viability and cytotoxicity of chondrocytes in rat cells was investigated using CCK8. Western blotting, Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and immunofluorescence staining were used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of GAA inhibition of ferroptosis in OA chondrocytes. The effect of GAA on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation levels in chondrocytes was examined using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and fluorescent dye BODIPY581/591 C11. in vivo, micro-CT imaging, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Safranin O-Fast staining, and immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the effects of GAA on OA cartilage.

Results: The results showed that GAA treatment regulated the expression of chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM) related factors, including ADAMTS5, MMP13, SOX9, Aggrecan, and COL1A2 and reduced the ROS and lipid peroxidation levels. Besides, Erastin could reverse the effects of GAA on chondrocytes. Similar to GAA, 5-AZA caused the reduction of ROS and lipid peroxidation levels and reversed the effect of IL-1β on the expression of ECM-related factors in OA chondrocytes. The above results clarified that GAA alleviated the ferroptosis of chondrocytes in OA by inhibiting GPX4 methylation.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that GAA might be developed as a drug for treating OA clinically.


Gossypol acetic acid, GPX4, methylation, ferroptosis, osteoarthritis.


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