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Rhodotorulic Acid and its Derivatives: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications


Joanna Stefaniak*, Michał G. Nowak and Andrzej S. Skwarecki   Pages 1 - 16 ( 16 )


Siderophores are low molecular weight compounds produced by microorganisms to scavenge iron in iron-deficient environments. Rhodotorulic acid, a natural hydroxamate siderophore, plays a vital role in iron acquisition for fungi and bacteria. As the simplest natural hydroxamate siderophore, it exhibits a high affinity for ferric ions, enabling it to form stable complexes that facilitate iron uptake and transport within microorganisms. This article provides a comprehensive analysis of this hydroxamate siderophore, rhodotorulic acid, its synthesis, physicochemical properties, and biological significance. It also explores its applications in antifungal and plant protection strategies. Insights into RA derivatives reveal distinct biological effects and applications with potential in various fields, from antioxidants to antifungals. Rhodotorulic acid and its derivatives show promise for novel therapies, plant protection strategies, and iron supplementation in agriculture. Understanding their properties could advance science and medicine with sustainable practices.


Rhodotorulic acid, siderophores, chemical synthesis, natural products, medicinal chemistry, iron acquisition.


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