Amin Gasmi*, Pavan Kumar Mujawdiya, Roman Lysiuk, Mariia Shanaida, Massimiliano Peana, Salva Piscopo, Nataliya Beley, Svitlana Dzyha, Kateryna Smetanina, Volodymyr Shanaida, Stéphane Résimont and Geir Bjørklund Pages 1 - 17 ( 17 )
alanine (BA), being a non-proteinogenic amino acid, is an important constituent of L-carnosine (LC), which is necessary for maintaining the muscle buffering capacity and preventing a loss of muscle mass associated with aging effects. BA is also very important for normal human metabolism due to the formation of a part of pantothenate, which is incorporated into coenzyme A. BA is synthesized in the liver, and its combination with histidine results in the formation of LC, which accumulates in the muscles and brain tissues and has a well-defined physiological role as a good buffer for the pH range of muscles that caused its rapidly increased popularity as ergogenic support to sports performance. The main antioxidant mechanisms of LC include reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and chelation of metal ions. With age, the buffering capacity of muscles also declines due to reduced concentration of LC and sarcopenia. Moreover, LC acts as an antiglycation agent, ultimately reducing the development of degenerative diseases. LC has an anti-inflammatory effect in autoimmune diseases such as osteoarthritis. As histidine is always present in the human body in higher concentrations than BA, humans have to get BA from dietary sources to support the required amount of this critical constituent to supply the necessary amount of LC synthesis. Also, BA has other beneficial effects, such as preventing skin aging and intestinal damage, improving the stress-- fighting capability of the muscle cells, and managing an age-related decline in memory and learning. In this review, the results of a detailed analysis of the role and various beneficial properties of BA and LC from the anti-aging perspective.
amino acid,dipeptide,beta-alanine,L-carnosine,anti-aging effect,sources,dietary supplements,dosages