Call for Papers  

Article Details

Review Article

An Update of Extracellular Vesicle Involvement in different Steps of Cancer Metastasis and Targeting Strategies


Keywan mortezaee* and jamal majidpoor   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )


Cancer metastasis is the deadliest event in tumorigenesis. Despite extensive research, there are still unsolved challenges regarding early metastasis detection and targeting strategies. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their impact on tumorigenic-related events are in the eye of current investigations. EVs represent a plethora of biomarkers and information, and they are considered key determinants in tumor progression and for tumor prognosis and monitoring. EVs are one of the key mediators for inter-cellular communications between tumor cells and their nearby stroma. They are involved in different steps of metastasis from invasion toward formation of pre-metastatic niches (PMNs), and final growth and colonization of tumor cells in desired organ/s of the target. Membrane components of EVs and their cargo can be traced for the identification of tumor metastasis, and their targeting is a promising strategy in cancer therapy. In this review, we aimed to discuss the current understanding of EV-based metastatic predilection in cancer, providing updated information about EV involvement in different metastatic steps and suggesting some strategies to hamper this devastating condition.


Extracellular vesicle (EV), exosome, metastasis, tumor microenvironment (TME), cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF), transforming growth factor (TGF), pre-metastatic niche (PMN).


Read Full-Text article